AskDefine | Define Siouan

Dictionary Definition

Siouan adj : of or relating to the Sioux people or their language and culture

Noun

1 a member of a group of North American Indian peoples who spoke a Siouan language and who ranged from Lake Michigan to the Rocky Mountains [syn: Sioux]
2 a family of North American Indian languages spoken by the Sioux [syn: Siouan language]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Adjective

  1. Of or relating to the Sioux people, culture or languages.

Related terms

Extensive Definition

The Siouan (a.k.a. Siouan proper, Western Siouan) languages are a Native American language family of North America. The Siouan family is related to the Catawban family, together making up the Siouan-Catawban family. Some authors use the term Siouan to refer to the Siouan-Catawban family and the term Siouan proper to refer to the Siouan family.
While the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota comprise "the Great Sioux Nation", the language family is much broader and includes "the old speakers", the Ho-Chunk and their linguistic cousins, the Crow. The Siouan family also extends back East and down South.
While social migrations have yet to be definitively worked out, linguistic and historical sittings indicate a southern origin of Siouan people, with migrations over a thousand years ago from North Carolina and Virginia to Ohio, then both down the Ohio River to the Mississippi and up to the Missouri, and across Ohio to Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, home of the Dakota.

Family division

The Siouan family consists of 17 languages with various sub-languages:
I. Missouri River Siouan (a.k.a. Crow-Hidatsa)
1. Crow (a.k.a. Absaroka, Apsaroka, Apsaalooke, Upsaroka)
2. Hidatsa (a.k.a. Gros Ventre, Minitari, Minnetaree)
II. Mandan Siouan
3. Mandan
a. Nuptare
b. Neutare
III. Mississippi Valley Siouan (a.k.a. Central Siouan)
A. Dakotan (a.k.a. Sioux-Assiniboine-Stoney)
4. Sioux
a. Santee-Sisseton (a.k.a. Santee, Eastern Sioux, Dakota)
i. Santee
ii. Sisseton
b. Yankton-Yanktonai (a.k.a. Yankton, Central Sioux, Dakota)
i. Yankton
ii. Yanktonai
c. Teton (a.k.a. Lakhota, Lakota, Western Sioux)
i. Northern Teton
ii. Southern Teton
5. Assiniboine (a.k.a. Assiniboin)
6. Stoney (a.k.a. Alberta Assiniboine)
B. Chiwere-Winnebago (a.k.a. Chiwere)
7. Chiwere (a.k.a. Ioway-Otoe-Missouria, Ioway-Otoe)
a. Iowa (a.k.a. Ioway)
b. Otoe (a.k.a. Oto, Jiwere)
c. Missouria (a.k.a. Missouri)
8. Winnebago (a.k.a. Hocák, Hochunk, Hochank, Hocangara, Hotcangara, Hochangara)
C. Dhegiha (a.k.a. Dhegihan)
9. Omaha-Ponca
a. Omaha
b. Ponca (a.k.a. Ponka)
10. Kansa-Osage
a. Kansa (a.k.a. Kanza, Kaw) (†)
b. Osage
11. Quapaw (a.k.a. Kwapa, Kwapaw, Arkansas) (†)
IV. Ohio Valley Siouan (a.k.a. Southeastern Siouan)
A. Virginia Siouan
12. Tutelo
13. Saponi (a.k.a. Saponey) (†)
14. Moniton (a.k.a. Monacan) (†)
15. Occaneechi
B. Mississippi Siouan (a.k.a. Ofo-Biloxi) (†)
16. Biloxi (†)
17. Ofo (a.k.a. Ofogoula) (†)
Another view of both the Dakotan and Mississippi Valley branches is to represent them as dialect continuums. Notice: This article does not have information about the Virginia Souian group.

Genetic relations

Some linguists associate Siouan languages with Caddoan and Iroquoian languages in a Macro-Siouan language family.

See also

Bibliography

  • Parks, Douglas R.; & Rankin, Robert L. (2001). The Siouan languages. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94-114). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.

External links

Siouan in Arabic: لغات سيووية
Siouan in Catalan: llengües siouan
Siouan in German: Sioux-Sprachen
Siouan in Spanish: Lenguas siouan
Siouan in French: Langues siouan
Siouan in Croatian: Siouan
Siouan in Norwegian Nynorsk: Sioux
Siouan in Polish: Języki siouańskie
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