Siouan adj : of or relating to the Sioux people or their language and culture
1 a member of a group of North American Indian peoples who spoke a Siouan language and who ranged from Lake Michigan to the Rocky Mountains [syn: Sioux]
2 a family of North American Indian languages spoken by the Sioux [syn: Siouan language]
- Of or relating to the Sioux people, culture or languages.
The Siouan (a.k.a. Siouan proper, Western Siouan) languages are a Native American language family of North America. The Siouan family is related to the Catawban family, together making up the Siouan-Catawban family. Some authors use the term Siouan to refer to the Siouan-Catawban family and the term Siouan proper to refer to the Siouan family.
While the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota comprise "the Great Sioux Nation", the language family is much broader and includes "the old speakers", the Ho-Chunk and their linguistic cousins, the Crow. The Siouan family also extends back East and down South.
While social migrations have yet to be definitively worked out, linguistic and historical sittings indicate a southern origin of Siouan people, with migrations over a thousand years ago from North Carolina and Virginia to Ohio, then both down the Ohio River to the Mississippi and up to the Missouri, and across Ohio to Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, home of the Dakota.
The Siouan family consists of 17 languages with various sub-languages:
I. Missouri River Siouan (a.k.a. Crow-Hidatsa)
- 1. Crow
(a.k.a. Absaroka, Apsaroka, Apsaalooke, Upsaroka)
- 2. Hidatsa (a.k.a. Gros Ventre, Minitari, Minnetaree)
- A. Dakotan (a.k.a. Sioux-Assiniboine-Stoney)
- 4. Sioux
- 5. Assiniboine
- 6. Stoney (a.k.a. Alberta Assiniboine)
- B. Chiwere-Winnebago (a.k.a. Chiwere)
- C. Dhegiha (a.k.a. Dhegihan)
(†) - Extinct language
Another view of both the Dakotan and Mississippi Valley branches is to represent them as dialect continuums. Notice: This article does not have information about the Virginia Souian group.
Some linguists associate Siouan languages with Caddoan and Iroquoian languages in a Macro-Siouan language family.
- Parks, Douglas R.; & Rankin, Robert L. (2001). The Siouan languages. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94-114). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.
Siouan in Arabic: لغات سيووية
Siouan in Catalan: llengües siouan
Siouan in German: Sioux-Sprachen
Siouan in Spanish: Lenguas siouan
Siouan in French: Langues siouan
Siouan in Croatian: Siouan
Siouan in Norwegian Nynorsk: Sioux
Siouan in Polish: Języki siouańskie